Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Senior Lecturer of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
CRITERIA FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF OLDER ADULTS FOOD PRODUCTS
Background. The current demographic situation in the world in general and in Ukraine in particular is characterized by distinct pace of population aging.
Physiological aging is characterized by gradual changes of human organs and body systems state, decreased activity of substances exchange. It is expedient to influence on this changes by providing food that will meet the specific needs of regular aging. Optimal and scientifically justified according to the specific needs of older adults nutrition and usage of elderly nutrition products, which are designed according to sustainable principles, enable the prevention of disorders, enhance the quality of their life.
The aim of the study is detailed analysis and systematization of data on the specific metabolic processes and modern scientifically-based principles and approaches to the nutritional needs of healthy older age groups.
Material and methods. While writing a scientific work the methods of scientific knowledge, analysis and synthesis, comparison and synthesis, induction and deduction, systematization of domestic and foreign scientists methodological approaches were used as a methodological framework.
Results. Results of aging mostly affect the digestive system. As a result of a gradual process of intestinal mucosal atrophy the gastric digestion worsens, the development of putrefactive microorganisms in intestinal microflora occurs and the need of pro- and prebiotics increases.
It has been established that the average level of elderly people energy needs are reduced by 16–20 %, of the aged – 30 % comparing to the indicator for the 18–35 years old. Depending on body weight, age and physical activity at the age of 61–74 it is, kcal/day: for men – 1800–2100, for women – 1600–2000; after 75 years for men – 1600–1800, for women – 1400–1700. The optimal ratio between macronutrients, % is – proteins : lipids : carbohydrates – 16–20 : 25–30 : 55–59.
It has been investigated that the optimal daily dose of consumption for elderly, aged people and centenarians in vitamins and provitamins (retinol, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, ascorbic acid, tocopherol, biotin, folic acid, cobalamin, calciferol, phylloquinone.
Also RDA of mineral elements consumption (Potassium, Sodium, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Ferum, Zinc, Fluoride, Manganese, Cuprum, Iodine, Molybdenum, Selenium, Chromium has been systematized.
Conclusion. Basing on the research of nutrients consumption rates for the older adults, which were approved at the state level, it is found that they do not meet modern scientific principles.
The elderly, aged people and centenarians have higher needs in a balanced protein and lipid components and lower in carbohydrate. It was established that these diets must have high content of fiber, ascorbic acid, retinol, calciferol, tocopherol, thiamine, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Zinc, Cuprum, Selenium and Chromium because of their ability to improve digestion , antioxidant properties and anti-sclerotic effects.
Based on conducted studies dry soluble product for enteral nutrition of gerontology destination was developed by the representatives of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics and the Public Institution "D.F. Chebotarev Institute of Gerontology of Ukrainian NAMS".
Keywords: the elderly, aged people, centenarians, metabolism, energy balance, macro- and micronutrients.