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Автор: sveta on . Posted in 2017-1

UDC 661.18-021.465
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics


Background. The bulk of modern synthetic detergents are washing powders. Currently 98 % of all detergents sold in Ukraine contain phosphates, which are substances Europe refuses from. Consequences of using phosphates are associated primarily with their negative impact on human health and the environment.
It becomes difficult for consumers to make the choice among the wide range and assess consumer properties of different types of detergents. In view of this, the quality assessment of phosphate-free washing powders is very relevant task.
The aim of the paper is to evaluate the quality of phosphate-free washing powders for washing clothes on the Ukrainian market and establish the presence of phosphates in them.
Material and methods. Quality assessment was conducted by the following parameters: appearance, washing ability, dust mass fraction, phosphates mass equivalent to P2O5. All studies were performed by standard methods in accordance with regulatory documents.
Results. The structure of the market of phosphates-free powders is characterized by prevalence of domestic manufacturers production as the production capacities of the most popular trademarks of phosphates-free powders in the world market (Ariel, Tide and GALA) are placed in Ukraine. At the moment goods of more than the 25 trademarks are presented at the market.
Requirements to quality, safety, marking and packing of the washing synthetic powders according to the existing normative documents were analysed.
As a result of the washing powder marking analysis was established that information concerning composition of detergent is present in all samples. The marking of samples of TM Persil and Sonet Expert Bio Aktiv contains information concerning contents of phosphororganic compounds that is not applicable for phosphate-free washing powders. The samples of TM Burti Compact NB and Sonet Expert Bio Aktiv did not contain the number of regulatory documents.
All samples met the requirements of national standard DSTU 2972:2010 regarding appearance and the washing ability. A mass fraction of dust of all product samples did not exceed the maximum admissible value (3.2 %). The sample of TM Sonet Expert Bio Aktiv had maximum range of this indicator, minimum one was in powder TM Royal Powder.
Phosphates were not spotted in three studied samples. Two samples (TM Persil and Sonet Expert Bio Aktiv) had 9.0 and 12.0 % of phosphates respectively. It does not contradict requirements and most established value for DSTU 2972:2010 and Technical regulations of washing synthetic compounds, however washing powders which are declared by the producer as phosphates-free should not contain these substances.
Conclusion. Today the market of phosphate free washing powders for various purposes in Ukraine comprises 17 %. Violations of labeling requirements of some samples were established. Results of studies of appearance, washing ability, dust mass fraction and phosphates mass fraction of all samples do not contradict the requirements of the standard. However, the signs of falsification of information and assortment of products were detected.
Keywords: synthetic detergents, phosphate-free washing powder, surface active agents (surfactants), phosphates, flavorings, optical bleaches, washing capacity, bleaching power, phosphate mass fraction.