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Автор: sveta on . Posted in 2017-1

UDC 664.8.037.1 : 634.11
MELNYK Оlexandr,
Doctor of Horticultural Sciences, Professor of Uman National University of Horticulture
KHUDIK Ludmila,
Teacher of Uman National University of Horticulture


Background. Flesh firmness and background color of the apple’s skin cha­racterize the ripeness degree and determine the attractiveness of fruits to the consumer. Flesh firmness is reducing and background color is changing from green to yellow due to the chlorophyll degradation and synthesis of carotenoids and flavonoids in the process of fruit ripening during long-term storage. Most consumers prefer the green and sufficiently firm and juicy fruits. Preservation of product quality during storage and slowing down the fruit ripening are achieved by postharvest treatment with ethylene inhibitor 1-methyl­cyclopropene (1-MCP) which provides higher flesh firmness and slows the chlorophyll degradation in the apple peel.
Material and methods. Research objects were early-winter apple cultivars 'Calville' and 'Spartan', treated after harvest with 1–MCP (SmartFreshTM 0.068 g·m-3) for 24 h at 5 °C, during storage at 3±1 °C and relative humidity 85–90 % for six months (control samples were non-treated fruits). The flesh firmness (kg/cm2) was determined by a penetrometer FT 327 with plunger diameter 11 mm, previously cutting off the skin. The background color of the skin was evaluated by spectral colorimeter Specol through the light reflection (%) at wave 675 nm that corresponds to the maximum of chlorophyll absorption. The chlorophyll a + b content in the skin was determined in alcohol extracts by spectral colorimeter Specol. All the researches were replicated three times.
Results. The flesh firmness of both early–winter apple cultivars decreased during storage with substantial differences between the treated with 1–MCP and un-treated fruits. The level of light reflection from the skin of apples increased and the chlorophyll content decreased with increasing the post-harvest ripening of fruits during storage. Close correlations between these indicators were founded. Compared to 1-MCP treated apples, un-treated fruits of both cultivars were characterized by more intensive skin yellowing during storage due to the it faster decrease of chlorophyll a + b content and increase of the light reflection level.
Conclusion. Postharvest treatment of apple fruits with ethylene inhibitor 1–MCP prolongs the marketable shelf life of early-winter apple cultivars 'Calville' and 'Spartan' with the permissible flesh firmness level for supply to the supermarket chains, effectively inhibits postharvest ripening due to the slowing of fruit background color change during storage.
Keywords: 1-methylcyclopropene, flesh firmness, total chlorophyll content, light reflection, background color, correlation coefficient.