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Автор: sveta on . Posted in 2017-1

UDC 641.51:639.389
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics


Background. An important role in addressing the problem of lack of high-grade protein and mineral elements in the mass segment and social nutrition of Ukrainians belongs to fish industry. Changes in the economic environment led to the economic development of small inshore fishing in the country and raised the issue of the use of mixed species composition catches of small fish, which include Azov-Black Sea goby, Glossu flatfish, Black Sea anchovy – hamsa and sprat, whitebait, small fish of the second and third groups (chub, ruff, Azov percarina, scardinius, silverside, loach, minnow, etc.) of less than 12 cm. The results of research and experience of industrial production determine the economic feasibility of processing such raw materials for food mincemeat, which will enable to produce a wide range of finished food products based on them.
At the same time the search for raw materials for production of minced fish products and improving its technology, in our opinion, are relevant. Azov-Black Sea gobies are major industrial objects that make up a significant share in the amounts of fish products production. The range of food products made from Azov goby are limited. Azov goby is a valuable high-protein product, but difficulties in processing technology make it impossible to use it fully in food technology. It is therefore appropriate and relevant to recycle Azov goby to mince and dried fish & plant semi-finished products that can be used in the manufacture of culinary, confectionery, snack and food concentrates production of high biological value as a protein-mineral dresser and substitutes for more expensive fish raw materials, particularly in the segment of mass and social nutrition.
The aim of the scientific work is to research the possibilities for expanding uses of domestic small fish raw materials (Azov-Black Sea gobies) in food production after determining their size-mass characteristics and the study of the output and quality of the different tissues of minced gobies and identify their technological use.
Material and methods. Research objects was Azov-Black Sea goby (next – the goby), of the autumn and spring catch (Berdyansk Bay of the Sea of Azov), mince based on low-wasted goby processing. Subject of investigation was the goby morphological composition (% wt.), the output and quality of mince of different tissues of the goby. Size-mass composition of raw fish was investigated according with GOST 1368. The sample size of goby to determine the mass and size-morphological structure was 100 kg. The mass fraction of moisture was investigated by drying at a temperature of 100–105 °C, water-retaining capacity by pressing by the method of Grau and Gamm. Organoleptic indicators of minced fish were determined in accordance with DSTU 8451: 2015 (GOST 7631) and by the profile method.
Results. The results of studies of  size-mass characteristics of the goby showed that average meat outcome of whole fish amounts to 34.9 %, and conventionally edible parts and waste constitute 65.1 % of the weight of whole fish. Mince outcome from muscle (40 %) and other tissues of fish (from 45.6 to 62.3 %) was determined.
Mince production of gutted and headless goby on the principles of complexity can increase output by 8.8 to 25.5 %. The scheme of rational processing of Azov-Black Sea small gobies was proposed and the scale of minced fish quality indicators was developed, which including the technological suitability. The samples of minced fish from small goby were evaluated on a developed scale by organoleptic and physico-chemical indicators and divided into the appropriate varieties. The technological directions of production of various types of food using the minced fish of the first and second grades was proposed. Technologies of culinary products, snacks and food concentrates using dry fish & plant semi-finished products based on minced goby of the first and second grades were developed.
Conclusion. The directions of fish resource saving technologies of production of minced Azov-Black Sea goby for differentiated technological use were developed. Production of minced small fish on the principles of comprehensiveness processing will allow more efficient use of domestic fish raw materials, as well as expand the range available in the segment of mass and social nutrition of protein containing culinary, confectionery, snack products, concentrates of lunch products, improve the provision of the population Ukraine with fish products, complete protein and bioavailable Calcium, increase food security.
Keywords: Azov-Black Sea goby, small minced fish, minced fish quality indicators, complex processing of raw fish, fish & plant semi-finished products, culinary fish & plant food products.