PhD in Technical Sciences, associate Professor of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
SAFETY OF DRIED FISH AND PLANT SEMI-PRODUCTS
Background. The task of rational use of domestic raw small fish is the development of technologies of its complex processing onto food products such as dry fish and plant semi-products that can be used in culinary products. Considering the requirements for complex processing of dry raw fish products, much attention is given to the safety indicators development, which are defined by the content of different contaminants.
The aim of the study is a research of the indicators of safety of dry fish and plant semi-products, which are regulated by the current sanitary-hygienic requirements and standards.
Material and methods. The research objects are dry fish and plant semi-products based on dried minced meat from steam-treated fish raw material of the Gobiidae fish mixed with plant composition containing flax seed, wheat, oat and rye bran.
The content of toxic elements (Lead, Arsen, Cadmium, Mercury) in dry fish and plant semi-products was determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer AA-7000 of the Shimadzu company (Japan). The concentration of Lead and Cadmium was determined according to GOST 30178–96, Arsen according to GOST 26930-86, Mercury by MB 5178–90. Preparation of tests is carried out according to DSTU 7670: 2014. The content of radionuclides in dry fish and plant semi-products is determined in accordance with the Guidelines No. 5779–91 (Cesium-137) and Guidelines No. 5778–91 (Strontium-90). The content of N-nitrosamines in experimental samples was determined according to the methods specified in State sanitary rules and regulations 4.4.2.030. The content of chlorine-organic pesticides in experimental samples was investigated using standard gas chromatograph "Crystallux 4000M" (RF) and capillary column Zebron ZB-1 (USA), for which the appropriate extraction of chlorine-organic pesticides from experimental samples had been performed with a solvent, cleaning of the extract in cartridges and using a chromatographic column filled with sorbent Florisil. The presence of pesticides was determined by the time of retention and the number by area of the peaks.
The following indices of microbiological safety of fish and plant semi-products were determined: the total number of mesophilic aerobic and optional anaerobic microorganisms, the presence of bacteria in the E. coli, pathogenic microorganisms and mold fungi by standard techniques immediately after production and every 2 months during the recommended shelf life (12 months). Samples of fish and plant semi-products were packed in hermetic paper bags.
Results. All investigated dry fish and plant semi-products contain toxic elements, % of the maximum permissible levels: Cd– 1.0; As– 8.0; Hg– 10.0; Pb– 6.7–13.3.
According to research results of radionuclides, pesticides, N-nitrosamines, it has been established that the products meet the requirements of current legislation. The number of mesophilic aerobic and optional anaerobic microorganisms in the experimental samples under study for 12 months storage is 1.4–1.7·103, and mold fungi – 29–36 colony-forming units (CFU)/g, which does not exceed the norms established by the current documents, there are no bacteria in the E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Yeast, pathogenic microorganisms, including the genus Salmonella, which determines their sanitary safety.
Conclusion. Microbiological safety and acceptable toxicological and radiological indices of dry fish and plant semi-products have been experimentally proved, indicating that they can be safely consumed by humans within the established shelf-life (12 months). The research results were used in the development of normative documentation on dry fish and plant semi- products – TU U 10.2-40220843-003: 2016 "Fish, products made from meat of fish, fish and caviar mold, caviar, milk, fish skin, seafood dried, dried and smoked, dried fish and plant semi-products".
Keywords: safety, dry fish and plant semi-products, toxic elements, radionuclides, pesticides, N-nitrosamines, microbiological parameters.
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