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Автор: sveta on . Posted in 2018_02(26)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31617/tr.knute.2018(26)05

UDC 544.723.2:634.21
Candidate of Chemical Sciences///Chemistry, Senior Lecturer
at Department of Ecology and Technology of Plant Polymers
of National Technical University of Ukraine Ihor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute
СHYKUN Nadiia,
Senior lecturer at the Department of Commodity Studies,
Safety and Quality Management of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
PhD in Chemical Sciences///Chemistry, Associate Professor
at the Department of Commodity Studies, Safety and Quality Management
of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics


Background. Biosorption is a promising process that can be used to remove pollutants from aqueous solutions using inexpensive sorbents based on vegetal waste from wood processing, pulp and paper industry and agriculture.
Promising is the use of sorbents of hard waste from the food industry, which are formed in significant volumes and do not find extensive practical use.
The aimof the work is to determine the chemical composition of the apricot kernel shell and to investigate their sorption capacity in the crushed state for synthetic dye and metal ions.
Material and methods. In this work apricot kernel shells crushed to a size of 0.5–1 mm were used. The chemical composition of the raw material, structural and sorption characteristics were determined using chemical analysis methods, infrared spectroscopy, porosimetry, and others. The sorption ability towards synthetic dye and heavy metal ions was studied using model solutions.
ResultsThe results of the determination of the chemical composition showed that the apricot kernels contained 24 % of cellulose, 17 % of hemicelluloses, 49 % of lignin, 5 % of substances extracted with alcohol-benzene mixture, 3 % of mineral substances. The specific surface area of the apricot kernel shells is close and reaches 5 and 7 m3/g, respectively, using nitrogen adsorption and mercury porosity methods. According to the results the methylene blue adsorption, the value of the specific surface was 27 m3/g, which can be explained by the fact that fixation of the dye on the surface of plant materials occurs not only due to adsorption in pores, but also due to the chemical interaction of cations of dyes and functional groups of lignin and cellulose. The volume of adsorption pore according to benzene vapor sorption is very low and only 0.03 cm3/g.
The study of the effect of the time of the sorption of methylene blue on its efficiency shows that the maximum absorption rate of the dye corresponds to the first 10 minutes of contact. Complete sorption equilibrium is achieved within 120 minutes. The sorption capacity of the crushed apricot kernel shells reaches 49 mg/g, for Fe3+ and Cu2+ ions are 44 and 54 mg/g, respectively.
Conclusion. The efficiency of using food industry waste, in particular apricot kernel shells, for the sorption of organic and inorganic substances from aqueous solutions is shown.
The obtained results can be the basis for the development of an effective technology for the treatment of wastewater from organic dyes and/or heavy metal ions for the use of cheap and available natural raw materials such as waste or by-products of agricultural and food industry, and can be of great practical importance.
This approach will allow the introduction of a new way to utilize solid vegetal wastes to reduce the environmental pollution of the environment.

Keywordslignocellulose, dye, heavy metal ions, cellulose, lignin, sorption, sorption efficiency.


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