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STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF PUMPKINS FRUIT

Автор: sveta on . Posted in 2012-2

UDC 635.62
 
KOLTUNOV V.,
doctor of agricultural science, professor,
KyivNational Universityof Trade and Economics
 
BULAKH M.,
assistance lecturer,
KyivNational Universityof Trade and Economics
 
STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF PUMPKINS FRUIT
 
The paper is dedicated to investigation of 11 varieties of three pumpkins species grown in Western Woodlands of Ukraine; to identifying the best of them by effectiveness of nutritional use; to determination of resource potential of included in the catalog of plant varieties suitable for distribution in Ukraine and perspective in Western Woodlands (Polissya).
Pumpkins (Cucurbitaceae) are representatives of a large biological family, which includes about 800 species of plants. Cucurbita maxima Duch., Cucurbita moschata Duch., Cucurbita pepo L. var. Citrulina are suitable to be grown in Ukraine.
Along with the general morphological components in varieties of pumpkins there are some differences. Morphological constituents’ value of pumpkin fruits is determined genetically, and the results of our research show that determining role belongs to the variety, not to the species. The difference between varieties individual indicators within species is less than the difference between species.
Pumpkins fruit weight varies from 0.6 to 60 kg or more; peel constitutes 17 % of the total mass, pulp constitutes 73 %, seeds along with the placenta represents 10 % and inedible parts value is nearly 30 %. Our survey results indicate that the fruits of pumpkin varieties grown in Western Woodlands, mainly are close to these parameters, but some of them are significantly different from these values. All Cucurbita maxima Duch. pumpkins varieties have high content of pulp (75–80 %), low levels of the cortex (11–14 %), in comparison with other species – much higher content of seeds (3.5–5.4 %) and low content of the placenta (5–8 %). Inedible parts in Cucurbita maxima Duch. varieties constitutes 16–21 %. Taking into account the range of properties we should noted Cucurbita maxima Duch variety Arabatskyi, which has a high content of pulp, a small proportion of the cortex and placenta and low seeds contain. Inedible part of this variety fruits is nearly 19.2 %, this indicator outstrips other varieties of this pumpkin specie.
We have analyzed some properties of the studied varieties of pumpkin (efforts to pierce the bark, juice output, nitrate content in the pulp, weight of 1000 seeds, core content in seeds, oil content in the kernel). The results of our survey show that the nitrate content in the experimental varieties of pumpkins, even in the pulp of first ovary does not exceed established standards (200 mg/kg), and in the next ovaries during storage its level significantly reduces, because during the maturation nitrate anions reduce to ammonia and include to organic matter. The level of nitrate accumulation is dependent more on the botanical variety than on the species. To higher accumulation level of nitrates among Cucurbita moschata Duch. varieties tend Rouge Vif D'Etamp, among Cucurbita maxima Duch. – Stofuntovyi, among Cucurbita pepo L. – almost all varieties, except Lel.
Hardest bark was identified in Mozoliyivskyi variety 15. Slightly behind him on this indicator is Ukrainskyi bagatoplidnyi. Cucurbita moschata Duch. dominate Cucurbita maxima Duch. in which the lowest resistance to puncturing was indicated. Rouge Vif D’Etamp has the lowest rate of resistance to puncturing of all experimental varieties, that is why its transportability is questionable.
Experimental varieties of pumpkin vary considerably in seeds quality. The largest mass of 1000 seeds is in Cucurbita maxima Duch. varieties, and the smallest in Cucurbita moschata Duch. The most fulfilled kernel among Cucurbita moschata Duch. was indicated in Arabatskyi and Rouge Vif D'Etamp fruits, among Cucurbita maxima Duch. – in Stofuntowyi, among Cucurbita pepo L. – in Lel and Mozoliyivskyi 15. Seeds of these varieties can compete on the international market.
Thus, taking into account the indicators that characterize commodity benefits of pumpkins in Western Woodlands, primacy among Cucurbita moschata Duch. should be given to Arabatskyi variety, among Cucurbita maxima Duch.to Stofuntovyi, among Cucurbita pepo L. to Ukrainskyi bagatoplidnui.
 
Key words: organoleptic indicators and morphological components, resource potential, pumpkin, pumpkin moschata, solid-bark pumpkin, bark, pulp, placenta, seeds, juice output, oil content, resistance to piercing.
 
 STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF PUMPKINS FRUIT