Articles to be published in the N 2 (42)/2022 of the scientific journal Commodities and Markets

TRAINING OF COMMERCIAL PROFESSIONALS IN UKRAINE IN THE 1920S AND 1930S

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UDC 378(477)"1920/1930"   DOI: https://doi.org/10.31617/tr.knute.2020(33)10
Natalia LYTVYN
 
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ORСID: 0000-0003-0555-0485
  PhD in Historical Sciences, Associate Professor at the Department
of Philosophic and Social Sciences,
Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
19, Kyoto str., Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine

TRAINING OF COMMERCIAL PROFESSIONALS IN UKRAINE IN THE 1920S AND 1930S

Background. The new vision of the development of the socialist economy required the state to create a coherent system of trade and economic education that would meet national interests and global development trends. The creation of commercial schools, institutes, schools, courses in the 1920s and 1930s required a great deal of effort and appropriate funding, aswell as the recruitment of professional staff who would work without fail in the style of the wishes of the party.
An analysis of recent research and publications has shown that despite the presence of some scientific achievements, the important scientific and practical problem of trade and economic education in the 1920s and 1930s and the lives of students in a planned economy remain unresolved.
The aim of the article is to systematize existing data on the social and national composition of students of commercial institutes, technical schools, schools in the 1920s and 1930s, and to analyze the "problem of personnel" of commercial establishments of Soviet Ukraine.
Materials and methods. In the course of the study the methods of comparison, tabular, economic and statistical methods were used.
Results. The situation in Ukraine with trade and economic education in the 1920-1930’s was investigated, namely the problem of the absence of trade and economic profile personnel in the field of economic planning in the 1930s was disclosed, the work of commercial institutes was considered, basic statistics on the entrants of commercial schools and institutes were given, also the main social and national composition of students of commercial establishments was shown. The attention is paid to the insufficiency of specialists of the commercial profile and the difficult financial situation of the students of those times. The author emphasizes the role of trade and economic education in the birth of a new commercial and proletarian intelligentsia.
Conclusion. In contrast to the existing publications, scientific hypotheses regarding the system of trade and economic education in 1920–1930 were formulated for the first time, and the proletarization of higher education and the involvement of the masses to the popularization of commercial institutions by the method of purification of the "old bourgeois elements" and the birth of new proletarian commercial intelligentsia were clearly demonstrated. From the above archival documents we can conclude that the lack of qualified professional staff often led to changes in curricula, concessions in the entrance exams, which negatively affected the quality of trade and economic education.
Keywords: trade, trade and economic education, commercial institutes.

REFERENCES

1.       Pyrig, O. A. (1996). Rynok i torgivlja Ukrai’ny (istorychnyj aspekt) [Market and trade of Ukraine (historical aspect)]. Кyiv [in Ukrainian].
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19.   Instytut rukopysu Nacional’noi’ biblioteky Ukrai’ny imeni V. I. Vernads’kogo [Institute ofmanuscripts of the Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine], f. XXXVIII, spr. 115 [inUkrainian].
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TECHNOLOGY OF SHERBET WITH HIGH CONTENT OF IODINE AND SELENIUM

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УДК641.85:613.2   DOI: https://doi.org/10.31617/tr.knute.2020(33)09
Irina ANTONYUK
 
E-mail: i.antonyuk@knute.edu.ua
ORCID: 0000-0003-4629-3403
  PhD in Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor
at the  Department of Technology and Organization of Restaurant Business,
Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
19, Kyoto str., Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine
Anzhelika MEDVEDIEVA
 
E-mail: a.medvedeva@ knute.edu.ua
ORCID: 0000-0002-7991-9161
  PhD in Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor
at the  Department of Technology and Organization of Restaurant Business,
Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
19, Kyoto str., Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine

TECHNOLOGY OF SHERBET WITH HIGH CONTENT OF IODINE AND SELENIUM

Background. Today it is known that the use of artificial compounds of iodine does not provide the human body with this important micronutrient, as there is a difference in the metabolism of organic and inorganic iodine. That is why attention should be paid to those substances that contain iodine in a bioavailable form for the human body, in particular to the seaweeds.
The aimof the work is to substantiate the rational amount of Cystoseirapowder and to improve the technology of frozen fruit and herb sherbets with high content of Iodine and Selenium.
Materials and methods. The research object is to improve the technology of frozen sherbets with the use of Cystoseira according to (TU 21663408.001–2006). The herbal sherbet, the Emerald piece of ice (with the addition of lemon balm, peppermint, Anethumgraveolens) and blackberry sherbet, the Icy extravaganza (with the addition of berries of blackberry) were worked out. The sherbets, made by traditional technology "Sherbet from herbs" and "Blackberry" are selected as control samples.
Options for the quantitative application of Cystoseira to desserts: a blackberry sherbet – 0.5; 0.7; 0.9 % by weight of sherbet; an herbal sherbet –0.8; 1.0; 1.2 % accordingly.
The scale of 5-pointl estimation of finished sherbets is worked out taking into account the coefficients of ponderability of individual indexes.
The mineral content is determined by the atomic absorption method on the Techtron-AA-4 spectrophotometer (Austria), Iodine – by the inversion voltammetry method (AVA-3 device, Russia). The repeatability of experiments is fivefold.
Results. The technological process of sherbets production consists of preparation of raw materials, beating (to obtain a homogeneous consistency) and freezing. In order to distribute the additives evenly it was applied at the end of beating. Further studies were aimed to determine the taste and aroma of sherbets taking into account the descriptors we have worked out: the herbaceous, mint taste should be expressed for a sherbet the Emerald piece of ice, and the berry (blackberry) taste for a sherbet the Icy extravaganza
For equation systems,the rational amount of additive is established: for a black­berry sherbet –0.7 %, for an herbal one –1 % per 100 g of dessert. The technology of production of these frozen desserts with the use of Cystoseira has been improved.
The biological value of frozen sherbets, herbal and blackberry with the use of Cystoseira, increased by 88.3 % and 2.7 times for Calcium, by 22.7 and 20.2 % for Potassium, by 34.6 and 27.6 % for Magnesium, by 90.0 and 27.5 % for Iron, 95 and 96 times for Iodine and 47 and 56 times accordingly for Selenium.
When using Cystoseira powder for the manufacture of frozen sherbet it is succeeded to increase the provision of human daily needs for all investigated mineral substances: to a small extent for Potassium, Magnesium, Phosphorus; 1.3–1.9 times for Calcium and Iron; 90.4–91.4 times in Iodine and 47.9 and 56.4 times for Selenium as compared to control samples.
Conclusion. The possibility of using Cystoseira powder for advanced sherbet technology has been proved.
The rational amount of the additive in the compounding of worked out fruit and herb sherbets is determined and their mineral composition is investigated.
The worked out frozen desserts (the herbal sherbet, the Emerald piece of ice and blackberry one, the Icy extravaganza) contain an increased amount of Iodine and Selenium and satisfy human daily need in Iodine by 63.3 and 64.0 %, and in Selenium – by 67.1 and 64.3 % accordingly, that makes it possible to recommend them in nutrition to prevent deficiency of these elements. Because the proposed compounding contains an alcoholic beverage, developed sherbet can only be offered to adults, except for pregnant women.
Keywords: frozen desserts, sherbet, Cystoseira, trace elements.

 
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TECHNOLOGY OF SWEET SAUCES FROM FRUIT AND BERRY RAW MATERIALS

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UDC 641.887:663.911.1   DOI: https://doi.org/10.31617/tr.knute.2020(33)08
Viktoriya GNITSEVYCH
 
E-mail: v.gnitsevych@knute.edu.ua
ORCID: 0000-0002-6089-1082
  Doctor of Sciences (Technical), Professor,Professor at the Department
of Technology and Organization of Restaurant Business,
Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
19, Kyoto str., Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine
Olena VASYLIEVA
 
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ORCID: 0000-0002-1707-4546
  PhD in Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor
at the  Department of Technology and Organization of Restaurant Business,
Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
19, Kyoto str., Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine
 

TECHNOLOGY OF SWEET SAUCES FROM FRUIT AND BERRY RAW MATERIALS

Background. The solution to the problem of the negative impact on the human body of endo- and exofactors is the development and introduction of high biological value products into the diet. Important role in this is given to fresh fruits and vegetables, but their consumption is seasonal.
The aim of the study is to determine the content of polyphenolic compounds, in particular flavonoids, in the Jerusalem artichoke and dogwood semi-finished products and desserts based on them in various ways of their production.
Materials and methods. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined by high performance liquid chromatography on an Agilent Technologies device (model 1100).The identification of phenolic compounds was carried out by spectral characteristics.
Results. Spectral analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids directly in the semi-finished product and desserts –jellies, mousses, soufflés based on semi-finished product. The qualitative composition of flavonoids in semi-finished products made of Jerusalem artichoke and dogwood is represented by anthocyanins, leucanthocyanins, catechins, flavonols, which are characterized by antioxidant activity. The number of polyphenols in the samples tested is significantly reduced by external factors. Particular losses are suffered by leucanthocyanins, which are very labile and rapidly disintegrate. The greatest destructive effect is caused by heat treatment for soufflé.
Conclusion. Conducted spectral and photometric studies of Jerusalem artichoke and dogwood semi-finished products for the presence of polyphenolic substances indicate that its use for the enrichment of desserts with biologically active substances is appropriate.Intensive processing methods, such as whipping and heat treatment, have been found to significantly reduce the content of polyphenols in prepared desserts. The use of gentle technological methods of their production is recommended.
Keywords: semi-finished product, desserts, dogwood, Jerusalem artichoke, biologically active substances, polyphenolic compounds.

REFERENCES

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FRUIT FILLINGS FOR FLOUR PRODUCTS BASED ON THE MODIFIED STARCH AND PECTIN

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УДК 664.64.016.8:664.684   DOI: https://doi.org/10.31617/tr.knute.2020(33)07
Olena HRABOVSKA 
 
Е-mailo.hrabovska@knute.edu.ua
ORCID: 0000-0001-6462-3790

 
  Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department
of Technology and Organization of Restaurant Business,
Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
19, Kyoto str., Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine

 
Mykhailo KRAVCHENKO
 
E-mailm.kravchenko@knute.edu.ua
ORCID: 0000-0002-0093-2786
  Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,Head of the Department
of Technology and Organization of Restaurant Business,
Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
19, Kyoto str., Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine

Nataliia SABADASH

E-mailriddle27@ukr.net
ORCID: 000-0002-1457-0616

  PhD in Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor
at the Department of Fats, Perfumery and Cosmetic Products Technology,
National University of Food Technologies

68, Volodymyrska str., Kyiv, 02033, Ukraine

FRUIT FILLINGS FOR FLOUR PRODUCTS BASED ON THE MODIFIED STARCH AND PECTIN

Background. Today, the highest demand among consumers is the use of combined products with jelly fillings based on fruit and berry raw materials. The main requirement for the stuffing is to preserve the organoleptic, physical and physicochemical properties throughout the shelf life of the products after baking. The essence of the problem lies not only in the complexity of the selection of stabilizing components to reduce the amount of free moisture in the finished product, but also in achieving the necessary properties: thermal stability, viscosity, harmony of taste, homogeneity of fruit mass, its attractiveness in color and smell. A promising area of research is to study the rheological properties of model stabilizing compositions based on pectin and modified starch for use in fruit fillings.
The aim of the work is a scientific and practical substantiation of perfection of fruit stuffing for flour confectionery with the use of stabilizing compositions of pectin and modified starch.
Materials and methods. The object of study is the technology of fruit stuffing for flour confectionery. The rheological properties of stabilization compositions based on pectin and modified starch on the instrument "Reotest-2" are investigated and the organoleptic comparative evaluation on a 10-point scale of the samples of the fillings prepared on the stabilization compositions is made. The overall score is defined as the area of the quality polygon.
Results. The investigations of the rheological parameters of model systems of different types of modified starch have made it possible to identify those that are suitable for use in fruit recipes.
The stuffing, prepared according to traditional recipes and technology, did not meet modern requirements and was of poor quality. The decision was made to replace apple puree with pectin or composition of pectin with modified starch with increasing the quantitative fraction of water in the formulation.
The determination of the best sample of fruit fillings was made by organoleptic evaluation, using a 10-point scale, on indicators: color and transparency, taste, smell, consistency, behavior in the product. The overall score is defined as the area of the quality polygon.
On the basis of the conducted researches the recipe of fruit filling for flour confectionery was developed on the basis of polysaccharide composition pectin + starch Emjel EP-300.
Conclusion. The results of the study of the rheological properties of pectin-based stabilized systems and modified starch make it possible to predict the structural and mechanical properties of fruit toppings for flour confectionery. The use of the composition of the modified starch and pectin makes it possible to reduce the cost of production by replacing some expensive pectin with starch.
Based on the study of the influence of hydrocolloids on the structure of fruit filling, organoleptic characteristics, in particular the migration of moisture into the housing during storage of the finished product, the optimal composition of the recipe mixture: pectin – 0.5 %, modified starch – 4.5 % by weight of the filling with a solids content of 72 %.
Keywords: fruit filling, pectin, modified starch, flour products, rheological properties.

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FORMING THE CONSISTENCE OF A MILK ANALOGUE MADE OF THE FENUGREEK SEEDS

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UDC 637.181   DOI: https://doi.org/10.31617/tr.knute.2020(33)06
Yuliia MOTUZKA 
 
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ORCID: 0000-0003-0400-6445
  Doctor of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor
at the Department of Commodity Science, Safety and Quality Management,
Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
19, Kyoto str., Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine
Anna KOSHELNYK 
 
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ORCID: 0000-0002-0322-9375
  Postgraduate student at the Department of Commodity Science,
Safety and Quality Management,
Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
19, Kyoto str., Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine
Olena ROMANENKO
 
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
ORCID: 0000-0003-1804-1225
  PhD in Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor
at the Department of Commodity Science, Safety and Quality Management,
Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
19, Kyoto str., Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine
 
FORMING THE CONSISTENCE OF A MILK ANALOGUE MADE OF THE FENUGREEK SEEDS
 
Background. The organoleptic indicators, including the consistence, in producingplant-based milk analogues are conditional on the size of input particles before and after its grinding. A too large size of its fragments can increase the speed of sedimentation, causing the extreme sediment and undesired feelings in the oral cavity.
The aim of articleisto identify and analyze the dispersed composition of fenugreek seeds and its impact on the consistence of the plant-based milk analogue.
Materials and methods. The dispersion of grinding of fenugreek seeds in the dry condition and after mixing with water is defined by the microscopic method. The digital microscope CL PC camera 4.5with the resolution capacity of the matrix 8 Мp is used for fixation of the image. Calibration and property of the digital cameras’matrices is performedon PC with ОS Windows 10.The dispersion analysis of fenugreek samples is performed bythe method of medium diameter, conducted in CoolingTech4.5software.
Results. The investigation of the microstructure shows that the grinded fenugreek seeds in the dry condition need the repeated sifting due to the occurrence of particles of the seed shells. The determined diameter of dispersed particles demonstrates an unevenness ofseed sifting, which is confirmed by the occurrence of particles with different size.
The research confirms that the fenugreek seed ability for swelling and the addition of ascorbic acid makes the particles better exposed to grinding.
Conclusion. It is found that the consistence of the finished product, a plant-based milk analogue, is conditional on the size of particles of fenugreek seeds.
Once mixed with water, the seed particles are increased in size by at least 1.5 times,but due to the discharge of slime substances they can be better subjected to grinding in the water environment in time of the drink production. The addition of ascorbic acid has the similar effect.
The homogenous consistence can be achieved and the product’s dissection with extreme sediment can be prevented by improving the technological procedure for the production of a milk analogue made of fenugreek, with including the phase of homogenization and increasing the number filtrations of the finished drink.
Keywords: plant-based analogue of milk, dispersed composition, drink, nutritional properties, organoleptic properties, consistence, consumer.

 
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