Приймаються статті для публікації в № 2 (42)/2022
rn Міжнародного науково-практичного журналу "Товари і ринки" з технічних та економічних наук 

Статті

UTILIZATION OF WASTE IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY WITH BIOGAS

Автор: Редактор on . Posted in 2013-1

UDC 628.477:628.336.6
 
SHEVCHENKO R.,
candidate of technical sciences, associate professor of Odessa National Academy of Food Technologies
 
KOMPANIETS V.
postgraduate of Odessa National Academy of Food Technologies
 
UTILIZATION OF WASTE IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY WITH BIOGAS
 
Background. Biogas utilization is an attractive segment of the bioenergy. However, biogas fermentation in livestock waste is characterized by relatively low values of output, especially compared with the processing of food waste which decomposition adversely affects the environment. Promising bases for such processing may be food enterprises of cooperative manufacturing on the basis of common industrial sites.
Material and methods. For the modeling of methane genesis a series of experiments was conducted. The study material is a series of samples of waste of different chemical composition, one of which – a model of multi-component substrate. The following research methods were used: laboratory (GOST 31371.3–2008) and methods of mathematical and statistical data processing.
Results. On the basis of chromatographic analysis of samples of biogas generated during the experiment image dependence of formation of methane on time of decomposition of waste samples were designed. Experimental data and its mathematical-statistical analysis shows that in the steady state of methane phase of anaerobic fermentation of complex waste utilization by company Ltd "Titan", the methane content in biogas varies in the range of 54–55 %.
Conclusion. Complex processing of food waste of cooperative enterprises is very relevant today. Bio fertilizers derived from food waste methane genesis are highly effective, and biogas is an alternative source of energy that can be used for various domestic and industrial needs.
 
Key words: biogas utilization, comprehensive bio utilization, biogas, integrated waste processing
 
  UTILIZATION OF WASTE IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY WITH BIOGAS

FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF COMMODITIES ECO LABELING

Автор: Редактор on . Posted in 2013-1

UDC 366.64:504(477)
 
GALYK I.,
candidate of technical sciences, professor of Lviv Academy of Commerce
 
SEMAK B.,
doctor of technical sciences, professor of Lviv Academy of Commerce
 
FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF COMMODITIES ECO LABELING
 
Background. In recent year the question of commodities and services eco labeling is widely illuminated in foreign and home normatively-legal and periodic editions. It is conditioned by the fact that an ecolabeling gives the complex of ecological information about the level of commodities ecological safety, of ecotechnologies of production.
Material and methods. On the basis of analysis of scientific publications the foreign experience of textile materials ecolabeling is studied and generalized
Results. The ecolabeling features in separate foreign countries (Germany, the USA, Scandinavian countries and European Union, Russia) are shown. An analysis of the ecological standards worked out and inculcated with the international requirements is given. The renewed version of home ecomark the "Green crane" is done.
Conclusion. Expediency of study, generalization and use in Ukraine of foreign experience of commodities and services ecolabeling for different special purpose setting and necessity of more wide scope of home products and ecolabeling is made.
 
Key words: ecological labeling, ecological safety, ecological signs, ecological criteria, foreign experience.
 
 FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF COMMODITIES ECO LABELING

THERMAL CAPACITY OF PEAR FRUIT OF WINTER VARIETIES FOR STORAGE

Автор: Редактор on . Posted in 2013-1

UDC 664.8.004.4:634.13
 
KOLTUNOV V.,
doctor of agricultural science, professor of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
 
MAZUR W.
senior lecturer of Uman’ National University of Gardening
 
THERMAL CAPACITY OF PEAR FRUIT OF WINTER VARIETIES FOR STORAGE
 
Background. Fruits are open biological systems in which natural processes continue even after picking up the fruit from the tree. We can slow them only by biological stabilization, which requires the creation of appropriate physical storage conditions. Purpose of the study is to determine the speed of the process of lowering the temperature to the optimum for winter varieties of pears when laying them for storage.
Material and methods. Pear fruit of winter varieties Zolotovorotska, Etiud, Cure, Concord, Yuzhanka was studied. The dynamics of temperature and enthalpy [6] during cooling the fruit to the optimum storage temperature in refrigerated chambers and during warming was conducted in accordance with the "Guidelines for the storage of fruits, vegetables and grapes" [7]. Changes in temperature at the center of the fruit were measured by thermosteam.
Results. The longest time (11 h) for a decrease in temperature to the optimum required Cure sort that had the greatest weight and size of the fruit. The quickest of all (5.5 h) was cooled pear variety Yuzhanka. At about the same sort of physical parameters of Eitud difference in the duration of cooling was 1.5 ° C for Yuzhanka, in which the rate of temperature decrease in the relative percentages was significantly higher than for Etiud (Table 2).
Progress in reducing the temperature in the center of the fruit is differnt: it is intense in the first hour of cooling, and then it starts to slow down. In some periods of the process there are significant jumps in the intensity of lowering the temperature of the fruit.
Heating rate of fruit was quicker than cooling (Table 4). With placing the fruit in a warm room after 30 minutes there was a sharp rise in temperature and heat content in all varieties. In the next 2–2.5 hours the intensity of these processes gradually decreased, and after heating to 12–13 ° C increase in temperature to its initial level was slow.
Conclusion. Rate of physical and thermal processes during cooling pear fruit of winter varieties depends not only on the ambient temperature, but also on genetic characteristics of the variety.
Dynamics of decrease and increase of temperature of pear fruit is uneven at the same time that should be considered when monitoring the temperature conditions during storage in refrigerator.
 
Key words: storage ability, pear fruit, the rate of cooling and heating, physical and thermal pear fruit indicators, temperature, dynamic difference, refrigerator, fruit weight, heat capacity.
 
 THERMAL CAPACITY OF PEAR FRUIT OF WINTER VARIETIES FOR STORAGE

HONEY PRESS OF CHORDIAL RADIAL TYPE

Автор: Редактор on . Posted in 2013-1

UDC 638.14
 
CHEPOK R.,
candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor of Kherson State University
 
CHEPOK V.,
candidate of pedagogical sciences, professor of Kherson State University
 
NOSOVA I.
candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor of Kherson State University
 
HONEY PRESS OF CHORDIAL RADIAL TYPE
 
Background. The analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of manual and electric honey of chordial and radial type is presented in the article. Electric one has bigger output capacity, but it’s not used for transportable apiaries, because one must have an engine with relevant capacity in a field.
Material and methods. In the offered honey press the "effect of turbulence" is eradicated due to the newest construction of rotor. Its feature is a hardly junction between three cylindrical five scope cassettes with the cellular scopes of different type and size, that are reliably fastened in three points.
"A helicopter or vent effect" which destroys honeycombs is eradicated by semi lids, that are disposed above honey press. Engine of the strap and friction start located in the underbody leads to the diminish of weight center of honey press. It increases firmness of work of honey press without the use of mechanisms for fastening to the foundation or flooring.
Amount of frames, which can be pumped out for a cycle is from one to fifteen (full load). Only three frames, which are located outside radiuses, at a full load work as in a radial honey press. Other twelve have deviations from such location and actually are on chords which are very close located to the chords of honey press. The angle of disparity with a radial location to each of four frames in a cassette makes approximately eleven degrees.
Results. The new electrical honey press of the chordial-radial type, in which there is no harmful "turbulent and helicopter effects" is designed and made.
Conclusion. The advantages of a constructed honey press are that it enables to pump out honey on the apiary of middle sizes (from fifty to one hundred bees’ families) without violating the rhythm of work when honey is being withdrawn. It also allows pumping out honey from honey-wax mass which appeared after unsealing honeycombs. The results of inventions, highlighted in the article, are submitted for the receipt of patent on a useful model.
 
Key words: pumping out honey, effects of turbulent, effects of helicopter, advantages and disadvantages of honey press, construction of honey press, electric honey press.
 
 HONEY PRESS OF CHORDIAL RADIAL TYPE

INFLUENCE OF FINISHING ON ELECTRIFYING ABILITY OF COAT WOOLEN FABRIC

Автор: Редактор on . Posted in 2013-1

UDC 677.017.57:677.3
 
KHREBTAN O.
 
INFLUENCE OF FINISHING ON ELECTRIFYING ABILITY OF COAT WOOLEN FABRIC
 
Background. Fabrics that contain synthetic fiber obtain static charge and ability to react on outer electric field during processing. Lack of scientific studies on the effect of special processing on the features of the coat woolen fabrics, namely on electric, is because manufacture output of these fabrics domestic enterprises has decreased. The consequences of electrification are: The influence of special finishing on consumers’ values of woolen coat fabrics and quality properties of different purpose fabrics were explored in works of scientists:
Material and methods. Samples of cot fabrics were chosen from the range of Private limited company "KSK ‘CHEKSIL" (t. Chernihiw). Synthetic fiber included in studied coat woolen fabrics were polyamide fiber (0.33 teks), polyamide complex thread (2.2 teks), textured elastic polyamide thread and nitrone fiber. In the Institute of Ecohygiene and Toxicology named after L. I. Medved where performed the investigations of electrostatic field on the surface of fabric with finishing and without it with device IESTP – 1 [4].
The objective of article is investigation of electrifying ability of coat woolen fabrics with special finishing in comparison with fabrics free of finishing. It was necessary to find out if special complex finishing is able to influence the reduction of static electricity, that occur and condensate on that fabrics during exploitation.
Results. Electro static charge on the coat woolen fabrics with and without special finishing was identified. Antistatic effect was increased by using preparation KATAX AL. Results of investigation showed that fabrics with special finishing didn’t accumulate static electricity and were absolutely electrically safe.
Conclusion. Practicability of usage of special finishing of coat woolen fabrics with synthetic fiber for electrifying ability elimination is proved. Results of investigation have shown that coat fabrics with special dust-, water- and oil-proof finishing didn’t accumulate static electricity and were completely electric-safe.
 
Key words: electric properties of fabric, electrifying ability, chemical synthetic fiber, coat woolen fabric, antistatic agents, special fabric finishing.
 
 INFLUENCE OF FINISHING ON ELECTRIFYING ABILITY OF COAT WOOLEN FABRIC